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Troubleshooting Problems with Chromatogram

Many problems in the LC system show up as changes in the chromatogram. Some of these can be solved by changes in the equipment; however, others require modification of the assay procedure. Selecting the proper column type and mobile phase are keys to “good chromatography.”

Peak Tailing

Peak Fronting


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Split Peaks

Distortion of Larger Peaks


Distortion of Early Peaks



Tailing, early peaks more than later ones

Increased Tailing as k’ Increases

Acidic or Basic Peaks Tail

Extra Peaks


Retention Time Drifts

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Abrupt Retention Time Changes

Baseline Drift

Baseline Noise (Regular)


Baseline Noise (Irregular)


Broad Peaks

Loss of Resolution

All Peaks too Small

All Peaks too Large

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